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  • Find here the articles you want to know about Vegetables, Fruit and Tuber Crop.

    Monday, September 4, 2017

    Benefit Fungi to Human

    Decomposition becomes an ecologically important process in nature. It can be a nuisance in everyday life. People have capitalized on fungal strengths, using them to ferment raw materials and produce food, averages, drugs, vitamins, and other useful chemicals. Other of interest are edible mushrooms which can be cultivated under tropical conditions. These include Paddy straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sajor-caju).

    Paddy Straw Mushroom

    Various fungi are used in the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages such as kecap tempe, oncom, tape, dadih, brem and brem bali. Kecap fermentation uses a mixture of Aspergillus oryzae (Deuteromycetes) or Rhizopus ligosporus (Zygommycetes) and yeast (Ascomycetes). The fermentation of soybeans to produce tempe uses species of Rhizopus, while fermentation of peanut cake to produce oncom is carried out with species of Neurospora.

    Many fungi are sensitive to environmental changes. Major modifications of the environment, such as forest clearing, can result in the extinction of fungi. Little attention has been given to fungi in discussion on conservation and there are only a few specialists in Indonesia.

    Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Many fungi mycorrhizal associations with the roots of plants. The fungi feed by secreting digestive enzymes from the network of slender filaments which takes the place of roots, and absorbs the soluble products of digestion. The mycorrhizal fungus enhances nutrient uptake by the roots from decomposing leaf litter, while deriving its nutrients from the photosynthesis of the host plant. The symbiotic relationship is essential for the establishment and growth of seedlings, especially in nutrient-poor soils. Mycorrhizal infection of roots can be confined to the root surface (ectomycorrhiza) or located within the root cortical cells (endomycorrhiza) as illustrated at right. Mycorrhizal fungi have direct applications in agriculture and forestry.

    Saturday, September 2, 2017

    Top Ten Poisonous Plants

    Poisonous Tree

    Not only animal like snake that can have poison on their teet, but some plants also poison. How the poison can work have different method depend on the kind of plant. Deceptively attractive, some common flowers and plants can give you headaches, cause convulsions or simply kill you, according to the "Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants" (Springer, 2007). Children under 6 are especially vulnerable; they account for 85 percent of all calls to poison centers, though the most commonly consumed culprits in poison cases are cosmetics, personal care products, cleansers and pills. Most plants are safe, but here are some you need to know about. They might be in your own yard or even in the house. - Robin Lloyd.


    These cheerful yellow and white harbingers of spring, aka daffodils and jonquils, are actually mildly toxic if the bulbs are eaten in large quantities (Narcissus pseudonarcissus is shown). Some people confuse them for onions. Daffodil bulb diners tend to experience nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhea. A doctor might recommend intravenous hydration and/or drugs to stave off nausea and vomiting if symptoms are severe or the patient is a child.


    Rhododendrons and azalea bushes (a variety of rhododendron), with their bell-shaped flowers, look great in the yard come springtime, but the leaves are toxic and so is honey made from the flower nectar. Eating either from these evergreen shrubs makes your mouth burn, and then you'll probably experienced increased salivation, vomiting, diarrhea and a tingling sensation in the skin. Headaches, weak muscles and dim vision could follow. Your heart rate could slow down or beat strangely, and you might even drop into a coma and undergo fatal convulsions. Before that, doctors will try to replace your fluids and help you breath more easily and administer drugs to bring back your normal heart rhythm.

    Also known as weeping fig, benjamin tree, or small-leaved rubber plants, all ficus have milky sap in their leaves and stems that is toxic. There are about 800 species of ficus trees, shrubs and vines (Ficus benjamina is shown), many of which are cultivated indoors in pots and tubs and outdoors in warm areas where some varieties can grow to up to 75 feet tall. The worst that will happen is your skin will itch and puff up and your doctor will give you something for the allergy or the inflammation.



    Every bit of the oleander plant is toxic, unlike the case for other plants where just the flower or sap might be poisonous. Even accidental inhalation of the smoke from burning oleander is a problem. Other trouble comes from using the sticks for weenie or marshmallow roasts or drinking water in which the clusters of red, pink or white flowers have been placed. These evergreen shrubs (Nerium oleander is shown) are common as tub plants or in gardens in the Southwest and California, any locale that approaches the plant's native Mediterranean climate. Typically the symptoms involve a change in heart rate, be it a slow down or palpitations or high potassium levels. A doctor might prescribe a drug to bring your heartbeat back under control and try to induce vomiting with ipecac, pump your stomach or absorb the toxin with ingested charcoal.


    Also known as mums, orange and yellow varieties of these showy flowers often turn up in foil-wrapped pots on people's front steps around Halloween and Thanksgiving. There are 100 to 200 species of Chrysanthemums, and they generally grow low to the ground, but can turn into shrubs. Gardeners plant mums to keep rabbits away. Guess what? The flower heads are somewhat toxic to humans too. But not terribly. Touching them can make you itch and puff up a bit, but probably the doctor will just give you something for the inflammation and allergic reaction.


    The leaves and stems of these bizarre-looking plants, with dark green, heart-shaped leathery leaves and a scarlet, white or green spike surrounded by a red, pink or white "spathe," are toxic. Also known as flamingo flowers or pigtail plants, eating tropical Anthuriums could give you a painful burning sensation in the mouth that then swells and blisters. Your voice might also become hoarse and strained and you might have difficulty swallowing. Most of this will fade with time, but cool liquids, pain pills and gluey herbs and foods like licorice or flaxseeds may bring relief.


    These darling droopers, also known as mayflowers, are entirely poisonous, from the tips of their tiny bell-shaped white flowers that coyly fall off like parted hair to the very water in which they might be placed. A little bit of Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis) probably won't hurt much, but if you eat a lot, you'll probably experience nausea, vomiting, pain in the mouth, abdominal pain, diarrhea and cramps. Your heart rate might also become slow or irregular. A doctor might decide to clean out your stomach by pumping it or feeding you absorbing charcoal, and might give you drugs to bring your heart rate back to normal.


    These poofy-flowered bushes (Hydrangea macrophylla) are popular yard ornaments that can grow up to 15 feet tall with rose, deep blue or greenish-white flowers that grow in huge clusters and look as edible as cotton candy or a big bun to an imaginative mind. But those blooms will give you a belly ache that sets in sometimes hours after eaten. Typically, patients also experience itchy skin, vomiting, weakness and sweating. Some reports indicate that patients can even experience coma, convulsions and a breakdown in the body's blood circulation. Luckily, there is an antidote for hydrangea poisoning, and doctors might also give you drugs to address to ease your symptoms.


    Foxglove is a magical looking plant that grows to 3 feet tall with drooping purple, pink or white flowers, sometimes dotted inside, along a central stalk. Its Latin name is Digitalis purpurea, which might sound familiar; leaves from the plant are a commercial source of the heart drug digitalis. If you eat any part of these plants in the wild, you too will likely have heart problems after a spell of nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea and pain in the mouth. A doctor might administer charcoal to absorb the toxin or pump your stomach, and might also administer drugs to bring your heart rate back to normal. Other names for this plant include fairy bells, rabbit flower, throatwort and witches' thimbles.


    Wisterias form romantic cascades of sweetpea-like flowers that fall in lush blue, pink or white masses from woody vines that grow mainly in the South and Southwest. The entire plant, also known as a kidney bean tree, is toxic, though some say the flowers are not. Better safe than sorry, because most reports are that eating this plant will cause nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhea that could require treatments such as intravenous hydration and anti-nausea pills.


    Legumes of Indonesia

    Legumes is a simple dry fruit that is developed from a simple carpel and usually split the seed into two sides, legumes like nuts fruit. An estimated 18,000 species of legumes have been recognized worldwide, making them one of the largest families in the plant kingdom. In Indonesia, there are approximately 510 native species of legumes valuable grouped in 110 genera. Many of this plant provide valuable service to people, whether as ornamental species, timber trees, medical and poisonous plants, green mature, ground cover, or as source of food.


     Kind Of Legume

    The legume family (Leguminosae) take its name from the latin legumen or pod. This a two-valved fruit with seeds attached to the edge of the upper margin. The pod may be straight, coiled, rounded, flatenned, winged, woody, fleshy, smooth or hairy. When ripe they may split open along the margin or sometimes break into seeded segments. Many seed are pea or bean shaped; all have two cotyledons and an embryo and can often retain the capacity to germinate for many years.

    Pods of different species can display a number of interesting features. The pod of Entade rheedei is the largest fruit in the world and many grow up to one meters in length. This plant is a large liana, but its mimosoid flowers only measure one centimeter each. On hot, dry days the pods of some species, for example Bauhinia, snap open with an audible crack, ejecting seeds several meters into the air.

    Flower of Legume

    Legume Taxonomy

    Taxonomists divide the legume family into three sub-families. The Papilionoideae or butterfly-flowered legumes which have fused stamens, cover most species (12,000) and include. The caesalpiniodeae (3,000 species) also have two-sided or zygomorph flowers, that is flower processing only one plane of symmetry. The third group, the Mimosoideae (13,000 species), include the Acacia and Mimosa species which posses beautiful floral pompoms with stamens protruding from the rest of the flower. All member of these sub-families produce a seed pod, but these may vary a great in size and shape.

    Petai in Indonesia usually used as Salads

    Valuable Timber of Legume

    Many valuable timbers are legumes, including 42 of the major commercial timber trees in Indonesia. The major leguminous timber grown in Indonesia are Indian rosewood (Dalbergia), keranji (Dialium), merbau (Intsia), kempas (Koompassia), batai or sengon (Paraserianthes), and sepetir (Sindora). Each genus has one or more species with good timber qualities.

    Ornamental Species

    Flamboyan is a kind of Flower
    Well-known and frequently planted ornamental legumes include the flamboyant tree (Delonix regia) from Madagascar, which today adorns many roasides in Indonesia with its masses of red flowers which appear around Christmas time. The Burmese Amherstia nolis is another beautiful species and is often planted in botanic gardens because of its long, hanging inflorescences of red flowers. The young leaves are pinkish and also hang like tassies from the branches. This flush is typical of many tropical trees, where soft new growth of yellow, white, light green or purple-colored leaves develops.
    From the above legumes many food receipt can be made become a delicious food.


    Group of Fungi

    Fungi are a diverse and common group in Indonesia, although only certain species are conspicuous. Fungi have a special characteristic because fungi have different structure with other normally green plant. They do not contain chlorophyll, and manufacture their food mainly by chemically digesting plant and animal matter.

    Many kind of Fungi
    Fungi found in soil, water, vegetation, animal bodies, food and even on buildings. Their reproductive unit, known as spores, are even present in the air we breathe. Despite being widespread most are very small and inconspicuous. Fungi grow in warm and humid conditions.

    Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Pathogenic fungi parasitize living plants and encourage the spread of disease of the infected plants. The result in economic losses, especially when the disease reported in Indonesia include 'blast' rise caused by Pyricularia orysae, and 'pokah bung' of sugar can caused by fusarium moniliforme. Other well known plant pathogenic include Phytophthora species which attach papaya, rubber and oil palm trees, Phythium aphanidematum which causes 'damping off' of cabbage seedlings and Albugo ipomoeae-aquaticae which attach vegetables such as water spinach.

    The most people, fungi are synonymous with the large reproductive and spore-bearing fruit bodies, although these represent just one class of fungi, the Basidiomycetes. Fruit bodies exist in a wide variety of shapes, colors and sizes. Most people have noticed Basidiomycetes in the form of mushrooms appearing by paths and gardens.

    The more common mushrooms include species of Lapiota and Macrolepiota. These are gregarious white mushrooms with brown scales on the caps. Another frequently found, but less conspicuous, species in Coprinus are small, delicate mushrooms which decay rapidly into an inky mess, thus earning the common name of ink caps.

    A rather unpleasant name is given to an exquisite wayside fungus with a white, yellow or orange veil the stinkhorn fungus (Dictyophora indusiata) which attracts flies to its spore-bearing tip. A similar but less common species that often forms extensive mats on litter of Acacia auriculiformis, is Scytinopogon angulisporus. Unusual names are also given to other fungi including the jelly or ear fungi (Auricularia spp) which occur on rotting logs and branches, and the coral fungi (Ramaria spp.)

    Basidiomycetes are decomposers of wood, a greater abundance and diversity of these fungi is found in forests where there are quantities of fallen trunks, branches and leaves. These fungi play an important role in the recycling of carbon. Such environments support many common gilled fungi such as Marasmius, Mycena and Hygrophorus. Lentinus species with funnel-shaped 'mushrooms' show a preference for decaying timber and are often seen in large number on fallen trees.

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