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    Saturday, September 2, 2017

    Fungi


    Group of Fungi


    Fungi are a diverse and common group in Indonesia, although only certain species are conspicuous. Fungi have a special characteristic because fungi have different structure with other normally green plant. They do not contain chlorophyll, and manufacture their food mainly by chemically digesting plant and animal matter.


    Many kind of Fungi
    Fungi found in soil, water, vegetation, animal bodies, food and even on buildings. Their reproductive unit, known as spores, are even present in the air we breathe. Despite being widespread most are very small and inconspicuous. Fungi grow in warm and humid conditions.

    Plant Pathogenic Fungi


    Pathogenic fungi parasitize living plants and encourage the spread of disease of the infected plants. The result in economic losses, especially when the disease reported in Indonesia include 'blast' rise caused by Pyricularia orysae, and 'pokah bung' of sugar can caused by fusarium moniliforme. Other well known plant pathogenic include Phytophthora species which attach papaya, rubber and oil palm trees, Phythium aphanidematum which causes 'damping off' of cabbage seedlings and Albugo ipomoeae-aquaticae which attach vegetables such as water spinach.

    The most people, fungi are synonymous with the large reproductive and spore-bearing fruit bodies, although these represent just one class of fungi, the Basidiomycetes. Fruit bodies exist in a wide variety of shapes, colors and sizes. Most people have noticed Basidiomycetes in the form of mushrooms appearing by paths and gardens.

    The more common mushrooms include species of Lapiota and Macrolepiota. These are gregarious white mushrooms with brown scales on the caps. Another frequently found, but less conspicuous, species in Coprinus are small, delicate mushrooms which decay rapidly into an inky mess, thus earning the common name of ink caps.

    A rather unpleasant name is given to an exquisite wayside fungus with a white, yellow or orange veil the stinkhorn fungus (Dictyophora indusiata) which attracts flies to its spore-bearing tip. A similar but less common species that often forms extensive mats on litter of Acacia auriculiformis, is Scytinopogon angulisporus. Unusual names are also given to other fungi including the jelly or ear fungi (Auricularia spp) which occur on rotting logs and branches, and the coral fungi (Ramaria spp.)

    Basidiomycetes are decomposers of wood, a greater abundance and diversity of these fungi is found in forests where there are quantities of fallen trunks, branches and leaves. These fungi play an important role in the recycling of carbon. Such environments support many common gilled fungi such as Marasmius, Mycena and Hygrophorus. Lentinus species with funnel-shaped 'mushrooms' show a preference for decaying timber and are often seen in large number on fallen trees.

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